# Dialog on Gravity

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Today’s mainstream physics runs into some serious crisis in both very large-scale cosmology and very small-scale quantum studies. As a matter of fact, the Theory of General Relativity not going along with the Quantum Theory has been one of the biggest confusions since Einstein and Bohr’s time. I think that we should look into the property of the field. With the following understanding, gravity force won’t be an odd phenomenon in modern physics. I have explained my thoughts and provided supporting evidence below:

1.    If one agrees that space (for now let’s call it the field) can be stretched, as most believe how space can be stretched and curved by the mass, then we could make one further assumption: the field (what we see as an empty/vacuum) has the property of elasticity.  Elasticity is defined as a physical property of materials which return to their original shape after the stress that had caused the deformation is no longer applied. When the mass is removed, according to current theory, the space returns to its original shape.

2.    If one agrees with the assumption that the field has elastic properties, then we could go another step. Once the field is being stretched, there would be force on whatever stretched it, as an elastic body would resist a distorting influence and attempt to return to its original size and shape.

3.    If one accepts the above, then he would also accept this fact. One of the ways to create a stretching effect is to create different densities in an even elastic material. For example, making a knot. The denser area will be pulled by the surrounding area. This is a basic feature of any elastic material.

4.    If there are two knots in the elastic material, there will be an attractive force to pull these two knots together.

5.    I define this type of pulling/attractive force that exists between two areas of density that are greater than the elasticity field as the force of Gravity.

6.    The matter with mass is simply the field being heavily “glued/tightened” together, which results in stress to the surrounding area and is observed as the gravitational effect between this denser area and another denser area.

7.    An EM wave moves forward by means of a change in density in the elasticity field, which is the same mechanism that sound waves use as they travel through air as their density is greater than the air through which they travel.

8.    If I am correct in my hypothesis above, then it could be concluded that there is gravity force between EM waves or EM waves and mass because both mass and EM waves have denser areas than the elasticity field. Here are the equations: (The details of these two equations are in the attachment of this email for your convenience and reference.)

F=Y_1 (f_1 f_2)/r^2 (gravity force between photon and photon)

F=Y_2 f m/r^2   (gravity force between photon and mass)

Where:
F – gravity force between two photons or photon and an object with mass
Y_1 =  3.61 × 10^−111 𝑚^3 𝑘g

Y_2 = 4.91 x 10^-61 m^3 s^-1
f – photon frequency
m – mass of object
r – distance between two photons or object with mass and photon

9.    You may ask; do you have any supporting evidence for your bold theory?  We do.  One piece of evidence is the gravitational effect of the Dark Matter. If there is a gravity force between EM wave and matter or another EM wave, all of the puzzling observations of the Gravitational effect or so-called Dark Matter will make perfect sense. After so many years spent looking for different hypothetical particles for Dark Matter and failing each time, it may be a good idea to take a different approach to this research. Here are two papers we wrote on this subject:

Unified Field Theory for Gravity and Electromagnetism and Its Explanation for Dark Matter Observations”:

https://zenodo.org/record/4057270#.X8-pprNOnIW

Explanation to Why Gamma-Rays and Dark Matter Density Align:”

https://zenodo.org/record/4062247#.X8-skbNOnIW

10. As a matter of fact, more and more research has discovered that EM waves can have more effects than classical electromagnetism theories have described. Here is one new study at the Large Hadron Collider which shows how photons can behave like matter with mass. "CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction."

https://www.bnl.gov/newsroom/news.php?a=217397

When the frequencies (f) of both photons (gamma ray in this case) are very high, and when in very rare occasions the distance (r) between the two photons are very short (13 times out of 4 billion events), according to one of above equations, the gravitational force (F) between these two could be significant enough to change their courses, which could be observed in a lab.

Here is one more example on this study by University of Pittsburgh. "Unlike particles of matter, however, photons have no mass. It is surprising, then, to find that gravity—traditionally understood as the force attracting any two objects with mass—can affect light.":

https://funsizephysics.com/gravity-for-photons/

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When there is gravity force between matter with mass, the Sun for example, and photons, let's say the light from another star as in Arthur Eddington's observation, as the equations showing above, the path of light will still be bent.

To illustrate this point, I will use Mercury's orbit as another example verify this gravity theory. As Mercury is relatively close to the sun compared to other planets, it is nearer to the actual source of the photons being emitted by the Sun. As a result, the amount and density of photons that act of Mercury are greater than other planets. This phenomenon, as stated in my formula, account for the additional gravity force on Mercury's during its orbit, which is strong enough to be observed. Therefore, it is does not need to be explained by Einstein's space-time curvature.

Einstein's General Gravity Theory on gravity has been repeatedly challenged by the observations of so-called Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Here is the latest one reported by BBC:

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-57244708

However, all of the confusing observations of dark matter can be explained with this new gravity theory that I published:

https://zenodo.org/record/4057270#.YQFDJUApDIX

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As you know well, an observation of a solar eclipse in 1919 gave the first supporting evidence of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. The same supporting observations have been seen in the form of Einstein Rings, but General Relativity runs into a problem when lensing affects light frequency. A quote from Dr. Blackledge puts it nicely. "The gravitational lensing equation does not include dispersion (i.e. wavelength dependent effects) and thus, cannot account for this ‘blueshift’ and, to date, there has been no satisfactory explanation for this colour phenomenon." (His paper is cited in the end.) This is a puzzle that the scientific community has not yet answered.

One of the most fundamental principles in physics is Newton's Second Law, F = ma. In this equation, force and acceleration both have magnitude and the exact same direction and position. The only difference between force and acceleration is that acceleration is multiplied by mass, a scalar. If the mass is nonzero and positive, force could be interpreted and described as acceleration; the two are indistinguishable.

In Einstein's General Relativity, force, particularly gravity force, replaces acceleration. For the last 100 years, General Relativity explains that every gravity force phenomenon is acceleration by the curving of space. Dr. Blackledge says that the theory of General Relativity is “a ‘geometric’ interpretation of gravity which does not include effects that depend on the wavelength of the light that is bent. Consequently, general relativity is not able to explain why an Einstein ring is blue.”

While General Relativity’s predictions have matched many natural phenomena, its explanation may fall apart when the mass is 0. When mass is 0, like that of a photon, F does not necessarily equate to a in F = ma. General Relativity’s notion of force equating to acceleration does not always work when mass is 0.

Many have noticed a frequency change from Einstein Rings, but few have tried to explain why. Dr. Blackledge developed a potential solution to this problem, but I believe we have a much simpler explanation.

If mass has a gravitational pull on light or EM waves based on its frequency, in our theory, the equation of force between a photon and object with mass is:

F = Y2fm/r^2

Where:
F – gravity force between photon and an object with mass
Y2 – a constant [4.91 e-61 m3 s-1]
f – photon frequency
m – mass of object
r – distance between object with mass and photon

This equation says that gravity affects light differently based on its frequency. Like white light going through a prism, the light spectrum is split, and a different frequency of color is observed at the other side. This would create the observed frequency shifts from Einstein Rings.

Dr. Blackledge’s paper:
https://arrow.tudublin.ie/engscheleart2/19/

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Because the gravity force is passed through the elasticity field, there is no need to introduce a graviton particle into this theory.

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The essential of this: Will the Newton’s third law apply on this situation: when the matter with mass exerts a force (gravity) on light (EM wave or photon and change its path), will light simultaneously exerts same amount of force to the matter with mass in opposite direction?

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